When Was Munich Agreement Signed

The Czechoslovaks were appalled by the colony of Munich. They were not invited to the conference and felt betrayed by the British and French governments. Many Czechs and Slovaks refer to the Munich Agreement as the Munich diktat (Czech: Mnichovský diktát; Slovak: Mníchovský diktát). The term „betrayal of Munich“ (Czech: Mnichovská zrada; Slovak: Mníchovská zrada) is also used because Czechoslovakia`s military alliance with the France proved useless. This was also reflected in the fact that the French Government, in particular, had considered that Czechoslovakia would be held responsible for a European war that would result if the Czechoslovak Republic defended itself by force against German incursions. [59] In 1938, the Soviet Union was allied with France and Czechoslovakia. In September 1939, the Soviets practically participated in the war against Nazi Germany, with Stalin fearing that a second Munich Agreement with the Soviet Union would replace Czechoslovakia. Thus, the agreement indirectly contributed to the outbreak of war in 1939. [60] On October 5, Beneš resigned as president of Czechoslovakia, realizing that the fall of Czechoslovakia was inevitable. After the outbreak of World War II, he formed a Czechoslovak government-in-exile in London. On 6 December 1938, the Franco-German Non-Aggression Pact is signed in Paris by French Foreign Minister Bonnet and German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop.

[80] [81] [82] Given the high tensions between the Germans and the Czechoslovak government, Beneš offered September 15. In September 1938, Germany secretly agreed to give 6,000 square kilometers (2,300 square miles) of Czechoslovakia in exchange for a German agreement to admit 1.5 to 2.0 million Sudeten Germans, whom Czechoslovakia would expel. Hitler did not respond. [13] The „guarantees“ of Germany and Italy will not „guarantee“ Czechoslovak neutrality until the demands of Hungary and Poland are met – that is, their guarantee will only be given, if any, when the division of Czechoslovakia has progressed. It is to be feared that by then any guarantee, whether German and Italian or French and British, will have lost the meaning it might one day have. During the Munich Pact, the leaders of the democratic government of Czechoslovakia resigned; President Beneš left the country for the France. Under strong German pressure and Slovak separatist pressure from within, the rump state restructured itself into an authoritarian regime and renamed itself Czechoslovakia, reflecting the significant autonomy granted to Slovakia. These efforts did not prevent Nazi Germany from inviting Czechoslovakia`s other neighbors to demand from its territory.

In the autumn of 1938, following the first Vienna Prize, Hungary annexed territories in southern Slovakia and Poland to the Tešin district of the Czech-Silesian Republic. We have suffered a total and absolute defeat. You will find that Czechoslovakia will be involved in the Nazi regime in a period that can be measured by years, but also by months. We are dealing with a disaster of the first magnitude. We have suffered a defeat without war, the consequences of which will accompany us far on our way. We reached a terrible milestone in our history when the whole balance of Europe was disturbed and the terrible words were first uttered against the Western democracies: `You weighed in the balance and found them deficient`. And don`t assume it`s the end. This is just the beginning of billing. This is only the first sip, the first taste of a bitter cup that is offered to us year after year, unless, through a supreme restoration of moral health and warrior power, we stand up again and defend freedom as before. Neville Chamberlain, the British Prime Minister, met Hitler during his retreat to Berchtesgaden on 15 and 16 September.

September; He reached a tentative agreement with Hitler, who agreed not to take military action without further discussion, while Chamberlain promised to convince his cabinet and the Frenchman to accept the results of a referendum in the Sudetenland. French Prime Minister Édouard Daladier and his Foreign Minister Georges Bonnet met with British diplomats in London and issued a joint statement that all regions with more than 50% Sudeten Germans should be ceded to Germany. The Czechoslovak government, which was not consulted, initially rejected the proposal, but had to reluctantly accept it on 21 September. However, this did not prove to be enough for Hitler; Like Chamberlain on the 22nd. September Hitler in Godesberg, he was told that Hitler now wanted the Sudetenland to be occupied by the German army and the Czechoslovaks to be evacuated from the region by September 28. Chamberlain agreed to present the new proposal to the Czechoslovaks, who rejected it, as well as to the British cabinet and the French. On September 24, the French ordered a partial mobilization: the Czechoslovaks had ordered a general mobilization the day before. This is the first French mobilization since the First World War. In a final attempt to avoid war, Chamberlain proposed immediately convening a four-power conference to settle the dispute. Despite his wish for war, Hitler agreed, and on September 29, Hitler, Chamberlain, Daladier, and Mussolini met in Munich. By December 1938, the Sudetenland was the most National Socialist region in the Reich, with half a million Sudeten Germans becoming members of the NSDAP.

Daladier was convinced that the deal would not appease the Nazis and that disaster was yet to come, while Chamberlain thought there was reason to celebrate, mistakenly convinced that he had achieved peace. The day after the agreement was signed, Germany retook the Sudetenland. The Czechoslovaks did not retaliate. On March 15, 1939, Hitler occupied Bohemia and Moravia, and Czechoslovakia ceased to exist. Slovakia had become an autonomous Nazi puppet state the day before. Many Sudeten Germans acquired jobs in the protectorate or as Gestapo agents because they were fluent in Czech. Northern Ruthenia, which hoped for independence, was taken over by Hungary. When Germany, France, Britain and Italy arrived in the early hours of the 30th century. Signed the Munich Accords in September 1938, the Nazis took control of the Czechoslovak Sudetenland, where ethnic Germans lived mainly along the Czech borders. .