While it cannot compete with the level of economic integration that existed at the time of the UK`s EU member states, the Trade and Cooperation Agreement goes beyond traditional free trade agreements and provides a solid basis for maintaining our long-standing friendship and cooperation. The new relationship between the EU and the UK will start if an agreement has been reached that has been approved by EU member states, the European Parliament and the UK Parliament. The Northern Ireland Protocol, known as the „Irish backstop“, was an annex to the November 2018 draft agreement that outlined provisions to prevent a hard border in Ireland following the United Kingdom`s withdrawal from the European Union. The Protocol included a provision for a safety net to deal with circumstances in which other satisfactory arrangements have yet to enter into force at the end of the transition period. This project has been replaced by a new protocol which will be described below. The EU and the UK reach a provisional agreement. It covers a transitional period until 31 December 2020, during which all EU rules will continue to apply. It also includes the border between Ireland and Northern Ireland. If disagreements between the Parties cannot be resolved by consultation, either Party may refer the dispute to an independent arbitration panel. If that body finds that one party has failed to fulfil its obligations, the other party may (partially) suspend its own obligations under the agreement. The agreement excludes any role of UK or EU courts, including the Court of Justice of the European Union, in the settlement of disputes between the EU and the UK.
 Although both sides remain free to develop their public policies in the areas of subsidies, social and labour policy or climate and environmental policy, the agreement provides principles and mechanisms for a „level playing field“ to prevent trade distortions resulting from measures in these areas. In particular, either party may (subject to arbitration) take countermeasures against injurious measures taken by the other party.  The agreement covers not only trade in goods and services, but also a wide range of other areas in the EU`s interest, such as investment, competition, state aid, tax transparency, aviation and road transport, energy and sustainability, fisheries, data protection and coordination of social security systems. Binding enforcement and dispute resolution mechanisms will ensure that the rights of businesses, consumers and individuals are respected. This means that eu and UK companies compete fairly and prevent either party from using its regulatory autonomy to provide unfair subsidies or distort competition. The agreement provides for the possibility of adopting compensatory, compensatory and protective measures. After the election of the British House of Lords on 22 September. In January, the Act approved the European Union (Withdrawal Agreement) Act, the Act received Royal Assent from the Queen.
The European Parliament approved the agreement on 29th January. In the field of energy, there will be regulatory and technical cooperation and a reaffirmation of the climate objectives of the Paris Agreement.  However, the UK is no longer part of the EU energy market and emissions trading scheme.  The United Kingdom has concluded a separate agreement with Euratom on peaceful cooperation in the field of nuclear technology, which has not entered into force. Prime Minister Boris Johnson said the ATT would allow the UK to „regain control of our laws, borders, money, trade and fisheries“ and change the basis of EU-UK relations „from the EU`s right to free trade and friendly cooperation“.  Opposition leader Sir Keir Starmer said his Labour Party would support the ATT because the alternative would be a no-deal Brexit, but that his party would seek to strengthen labour and environmental protection in parliament. Nevertheless, many members of his party rejected the agreement.  The Scottish National Party rejected the ATT because of the economic damage that leaving the single market would cause Scotland.  All other opposition parties rejected the ATT.  The agreement governing relations between the EU and the UK after Brexit was concluded after eight months of negotiations.  It provides for free trade in goods and limited reciprocal market access for services, as well as cooperation mechanisms in a number of policy areas, transitional provisions on EU access to fisheries in the UK and UK participation in certain EU programmes. Compared to the previous status of the United Kingdom as an EU Member State, it ended on 1.
January 2021 As they have not been included in the ATT or the Brexit Withdrawal Agreement: free movement of people between the parties, accession of the United Kingdom to the European Single Market and the Customs Union, participation of the United Kingdom in most EU programmes, in the framework of EU-UK law enforcement and security cooperation, such as access to real-time data on crime, defence and foreign policy, cooperation and powers of the Court of Justice of the European Union in dispute resolution (except for the Northern Ireland Protocol). WTO rules: If countries do not have free trade agreements, they must act according to the rules established by a global body called the World Trade Organization (WTO), which means taxes on goods The agreement establishes a Partnership Council composed of representatives of the EU and the United Kingdom. By mutual agreement, it is empowered to administer the agreement, settle disputes through negotiation and amend certain parts of the agreement if necessary.  The Partnership Council will also play this role by supplementing the EU-UK agreements, unless otherwise agreed (Articles COMPROV 2 and Inst 1.2) Immediately after the announcement of a revised withdrawal agreement on 17 October 2019, Labour, the Liberal Democrats and the DUP declared that they could not support the new agreement.  The Withdrawal Agreement also contains provisions on the United Kingdom amending the Convention establishing the Statute for the European Schools, under which the United Kingdom is bound by the Convention and the Accompanying Regulation on Accredited European Schools until the end of the last academic year of the transition period, i.e. at the end of the 2020-2021 spring semester.  The British Parliament rejects the agreement for the third time. The UK has until 12 April 2019 to decide how to proceed: on the Irish border issue, the agreement is accompanied by a protocol on Northern Ireland (the „backstop“), which sets out a fallback position that will only enter into force if no other effective arrangement is demonstrated before the end of the transition period.
In this case, the UK will eclipse the EU`s common external tariff and Northern Ireland will remain in some aspects of the single market until such a demonstration is achieved. None of the parties can unilaterally withdraw from this customs union. The aim of this backstop agreement is to avoid a „hard“ border in Ireland where customs controls are necessary.  On the 15th. In November 2018, a day after the UK government cabinet presented and supported the deal, several members of the government resigned, including Dominic Raab, Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union.  The 1,246-page agreement (including annexes) sets out its general objectives and framework with detailed provisions on fisheries, social security, trade, transport and visas; and cooperation in judicial, law enforcement and security matters. .